2. tisíciletí
  14. stol.15. století • 16. stol.  
◄◄     14401441144214431444 • 1445 • 1446 • 1447 • 1448     ►►

1444 (MCDXLIV) byl rok, který dle juliánského kalendáře započal středou.


10. listopad – proběhla bitva u Varny, která ukončila křížové tažení proti Osmanům, jež bylo reakcí na uzavření církevní unie ve Florencii. V bitvě padl nebo se ztratil polský a uherský král Vladislav III. Varnenčik.

Probíhající události



Hlavy států


Území dnešní ČR a Střední Evropa





Blízký Východ a Severní Afrika

Dálný Východ a Asie


Externí odkazy

Média použitá na této stránce

Kingdom of Poland-flag.svg
Banner of Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century

A seal of Duke Premislaus II from 1290 shows the ruler holding a banner emblazoned with a crowned eagle. During the reign of King Ladislaus (r. 1320–1333), the red cloth with the White Eagle was established as the royal banner. The orientation of the eagle on the banner varied; its head could point either upwards or towards the hoist.

Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg
Autor: David Liuzzo, eagle by N3MO, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Banner of the Holy Roman Empire, double headed eagle with halos (1400-1806)
Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg
Flag of the Papal States before 1808.
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg
The Ottoman flag of 1844–1922. Late Ottoman flag which was made based on the historical documents listed in the Source section. Note that a five-pointed star was rarely used in the star-and-crescent symbol before the 19th century.
Flag of the Kingdom of Sicily (inverted).svg
Autor: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Merchant ensign of the Kingdom of Sicily (14th to 15th centuries) [historical flags would not be rectangular put pointed at the fly]
Lozenge flag of Monaco.svg
SVG version of en:Image:Monaco_flag_with_lozenges.png (now deleted as superseded). The diamond pattern came from User:Denelson83.
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Württemberg; Ratio (3:5)
Suntur Paucar.svg
Autor: Adapted from Huhsunqu, made by Pachakutec, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Suntur Paucar, según descripción de las crónicas de Bernabé cobo
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737).svg

F l a n k e r, elements taken by:

, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737).
Pavillon royal de la France.svg
Autor: Oren neu dag (talk), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal flag of France before the Revolution (heraldic banner of "France modern")
Bosnian Royal Flag of Tvrtko I of Bosnia.svg
Autor: Santasa99, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Bosnian Royal Flag of Tvrtko I of Bosnia
Seal of Ming dynasty.svg
“Seal of the Great Ming Emperor”。
Royal banner of the Kingdom of Bohemia (colorful).svg
Autor: Samhanin & Havsjö (change the color of the 'Royal banner of the Kingdom of Bohemia.svg'), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Royal banner of the Kingdom of Bohemia (1305)
State Flag and War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816-1848).svg
State Flag and War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816-1848).
Supposed Flag of the House of Crnojevic.svg
According to several sources this is Stag of the House of Crnojević, originally Nemanjić; used by the autonomous Ottoman Sanjak of Montenegro in the early 16th century, hangs on top of the Cetinje Monastery.
Rautenflagge (24 Rauten).svg
Rautenflagge (24 Rauten)
Royal banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.svg
Autor: Samhanin, Licence: CC0
Royal military banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Double Cross of the Jagiellonian dynasty on the shield of horse rider.
Banner of the Margraviate of Moravia.svg
Autor: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Banner of the Margraviate of Moravia
Coat of arms of the Serbian Despotate.svg
Autor: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of arms of the Serbian Despotate (Rascia) from Western Armorials. This particular COA is from an Armorial by Christoph Silberysen (1576).
Royal Standard of Nasrid Dynasty Kingdom of Grenade.svg
Autor: SanchoPanzaXXI, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Estandarte de los reyes nazaríes de Granada. El color rojo era distintivo de la dinastía real nazarí [1]. Lleva el lema propio a esta dinastía «Wa lā gāliba illā-llāh» (Solo Alá es vencedor) وَ لاَ غـَالِـبٌ إلاَ اللـَّه. Otra variante se muestra en el Atlas Mediterráneo de Cresques (s. XIV) [2] con el lema al-afiyya (salud, bienestar…) de oro sobre fondo rojo.
Flag of the Kalmar Union.svg
This is merely a recreation of what the flag is thought to have looked like. There are no surviving flags or pictorial evidence as to its appearance. See article at Flags of the World.
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century–1526).svg
Autor: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century–1526)
Flag of Milan.svg
Při zobrazení tohoto souboru lze snadno přidat orámování
Delhi Sultanate Flag.svg
Flag of the Sultanate of Delhi according to the Catalan Atlas.
WARNING: This image is highly speculative. The main source pointing to this design is the Catalan Atlas, which as a historical primary source cannot be considered a reliable reference, especially if it is the only source used. This image should not be added to articles without clearly indicating its speculative nature. Note that FOTW (where most of those flags on Commons are adapted from) is based on user contributions like Wikipedia, and hence not authoritative either.
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples.svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples
Byzantine imperial flag, 14th century.svg
Autor: Cplakidas, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Byzantine imperial ensign (βασιλικόν φλάμουλον), as depicted in the 14th-century Castilian Book of All Kingdoms, and described in the Treatise on Offices by the mid 14th-century Byzantine writer Pseudo-Kodinos as being hoisted on imperial naval vessels. It features the tetragrammic cross with the four "B"s that is attested in contemporary portolans, on coins and reliefs.