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Probíhající události






Hlavy států


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Blízký Východ a Severní Afrika

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Externí odkazy

Média použitá na této stránce

Flag of the Margraviate of Moravia.png
Autor: Dragovit, sources: Moravská orlice s klenotem.jpg (the eagle delivered from), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Heraldická vlajka Moravského markrabství a moravských markrabat.
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
Autor: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Královská standarda francouzského krále (používaný jako státní vlajka Francouzským královstvím v období absolutní monarchie). Používaná byla v letech 1638 až 1790.
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg
Flag of Hungary from 6 November 1915 to 29 November 1918 and from August 1919 until mid/late 1946.
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg
The Ottoman flag and Turkey Republic Flag of 1844–1935. Late Ottoman flag which was made based on the historical documents listed in the Source section. Note that a five-pointed star was rarely used in the crescent-and-star symbol before the 19th century.
Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg
Variant version of a flag of Japan, used between January 27, 1870 and August 13, 1999 (aspect ratio 7:10).
State Flag of the Republic of Florence.svg
State Flag of the Republic of Florence.
Ancient Flag of Burgundy.svg
Autor: Oren neu dag (diskuse), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ancient Flag of Burgundy
Flag of the Count of Virtue.svg
Autor: Facquis, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Bandiera di Gian Galeazzo Visconti come Conte di Virtù
Kingdom of Poland-flag.svg
Banner of Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century

A seal of Duke Premislaus II from 1290 shows the ruler holding a banner emblazoned with a crowned eagle. During the reign of King Ladislaus (r. 1320–1333), the red cloth with the White Eagle was established as the royal banner. The orientation of the eagle on the banner varied; its head could point either upwards or towards the hoist.

Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg
Flag of the Papal States before 1808.
State Flag and War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816-1848).svg
State Flag and War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816-1848).
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg
Autor: David Liuzzo, eagle by N3MO, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Banner of the Holy Roman Empire, double headed eagle with halos (1400-1806)
Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg
Variant version of a flag of Japan, used between January 27, 1870 and August 13, 1999 (aspect ratio 7:10).
Safavid Flag.svg
Flag of the Safavid Dynasty from 1576[1] to 1666[2][3]
Autor: User:Stannered, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

Three annulets symbol of the Timurids. See article [1] for precise discussion.

Coinage of Timur with "three annulets" symbol (at the center of the reverse side). Shaykh abu-Ishaq (Kazirun) mint. Undated, circa AH 795-807 AD 1393-1405.( (2010). "On the Timurid flag". Beiträge zur islamischen Kunst und Archäologie 2: 144, 149, 159 Fig.5.)((angličtina) (14 May 2009) Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set, OUP USA, p. 426 ISBN: 978-0-19-530991-1. ""Coinage issued by the Timurid dynasty (r. 1370-1506) comprised various silver coins and several coppers, most often anonymous, although some coppers struck in the name of Timur 1370–1405; here called amīr) have a tamghā of three annulets prominently on the reverse."")

In the Catalan Atlas (1375), only this flag is used for Eastern Mongol dominions, and it corresponds to the Mongol Yuan dynasty, not the Timurid Empire, which is not mentioned in the Catalan Atlas and was created too late (1370) to appear in the Catalan Atlas anyway.

Eastern Mongol flags in the Catalan Atlas

STUDY OF THE FLAG by Yuka Kadoi, Faculty Member, University of Vienna ( (2010). "On the Timurid flag". Beiträge zur islamischen Kunst und Archäologie 2: 148.):

Timur umbrella detail with three-dots decorative motif

Yuka Kadoi studied the possibility that the "brown or originally silver flag with three circles or balls" in the Catalan Atlas could be associated with the "earlier dominions of the Timurid Empire", specifically referencing a flag shown over the city is camull (Khamil) in Xinjiang. She also quotes Ruy González de Clavijo (d. 1412), a Spanish ambassador who visited the Timurid court in 1404, who describes a a relevant emblematic design adopted by Timur:
"The special armorial bearing of Timur is the three circlets set thus to shape a triangle, which same it is said signifies that he Timur is lord of all three quarters of the world. This device Timur has ordered to be set on the coins that he has stuck, and on all buildings that he has erected (…) These three circlets which, as said, are like the letter O thrice repeated to form a triangle, further are the imprint of Timur’s seal, and again by his special order are added so as to be seen patent on all the coins stuck by those princes who are become tributary to his government."
She also notes the existence of Timur umbrella detail with three-dots decorative motif.
Some contemporary coins from Samarkand also have the three dots as a motif. [2]
Beyond this, scant confirmation.

The flag referenced by Kadoi would actually be this one: , the flag with the three red crescent moons which is seen all over eastern Asian in the Catalan Atlas, and which is simply the flag of the Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan China) ((angličtina) (28 October 2013) The World Beyond Europe in the Romance Epics of Boiardo and Ariosto, University of Toronto Press, p. 32 ISBN: 978-1-4426-6667-2. )
Flag of Austria (2000 World Factbook).svg
2000 CIA World Factbook flag.
Delhi Sultanate Flag.svg
Flag of the Sultanate of Delhi according to the Catalan Atlas (1375). The flag is grey with a black band in the Catalan Atlas (attached image), not green with a black band as previously uploaded.
The actual grey and black color appears clearly in the primary source (and the Catalan Atlas has plenty of green otherwise, so the grey cannot be a result of color fading), and this interpretation is confirmed by academic sources:

REFERENCE: "....that helps to identify yet another curious flag found in northern India – a brown or originally sliver flag with a vertical black line – as the flag of the Delhi Sultanate (602-962/1206-1555)." in (2010). "On the Timurid flag". Beiträge zur islamischen Kunst und Archäologie 2: 148.

WARNING: This is primary source image, the actual flag is otherwise unknown. The main source pointing to this design is the Catalan Atlas, which as a historical primary source. This image should not be added to articles without clearly attributing its primary source origin, and secondary sources are additionally desired if available (such as the one above). Note that FOTW (where most of those flags on Commons are adapted from) is based on user contributions like Wikipedia, and hence not authoritative.


The file of the actual grey flag from the Catalan Atlas was overwritten by the uploader over the previous green flag, a hoax that actually cannot be found in the Catalan Atlas. The original file claiming to be the "Flag of the Delhi Sultanate" being a hoax, it was quintessentially false and misled users, and therefore had to be updated with a proper and accurate image. This is following the spirit of the COM:OW rule about "Files with current data" which for example allows to modify the file of a map which has false national boundaries: "Files with current data: (...) However, files may be identified to reusers as ones where information may be updated – these files can and should be overwritten to reflect new information as necessary. (...) A file named "File:Germany location map.svg" is expected to indicate the current boundaries, and is expected to be updated if, for example, the boundaries changed or errors were observed." So a map with false boundaries can, and should be, overwriten: similarly a national flag with a false design can and should be overwritten.

Ducado de Modena (antes de 1830).svg
flag of the Duchy of Modena before 1830 according to Flags of the World
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg
Při zobrazení tohoto souboru lze snadno přidat orámování