2. tisíciletí
  15. stol.16. století • 17. stol.  
◄◄     15741575157615771578 • 1579 • 1580 • 1581 • 1582     ►►

1578 (MDLXXVIII) byl rok, který dle juliánského kalendáře započal středou.

Podle židovského kalendáře došlo k přelomu let 5338 a 5339. Podle islámského kalendáře nastal dne 20. března rok 986.


Leden – Červen

Červenec – Prosinec

Probíhající události



císař Ferdinand II. (* 9. července)




Mihrimah Sultan († 25. ledna)


Hlavy států

Střední Evropa


Britské ostrovy



Pyrenejský poloostrov


Východní Evropa

Blízký Východ, Eurasie a Asie

Externí odkazy

Média použitá na této stránce

Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg
Flag of Hungary from 6 November 1915 to 29 November 1918 and from August 1919 until mid/late 1946.
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
Autor: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Královská standarda francouzského krále (používaný jako státní vlajka Francouzským královstvím v období absolutní monarchie). Používaná byla v letech 1638 až 1790.
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg
Autor: David Liuzzo, eagle by N3MO, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Banner of the Holy Roman Empire, double headed eagle with halos (1400-1806)
Flag of Portugal (alternate).svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910).
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1844–1922).svg
The Ottoman flag and Turkey Republic Flag of 1844–1935. Late Ottoman flag which was made based on the historical documents listed in the Source section. Note that a five-pointed star was rarely used in the crescent-and-star symbol before the 19th century.
İmparator Süleyman’ın Kızı Cameria (Mihrimah Sultan).jpg
Based on similar examples by the European painters in various collections, this work is one of the portraits of Mihrimah Sultan, who was depicted rather often in the 16th century.

Dressed in a plain brown gown with floral motifs, the figure wears a tall headdress ornate with expensive stones. She is set against a dark background upon which are the following inscriptions on the upper left and upper right corners, respectively: “Cameria Solimani Imparator Filia” (Cameria, Daughter of Sultan Süleyman) and “Rostanis Bassae Vxor 1541” (Wife of Rüstem Pasha, 1541). It is highly probable that the date inscribed here does not indicate the date on which the work was executed. It can be assumed that the date and the inscription found on virtually all of the similar portraits by different artists repeat a tradition initiated by the first original portrait.

Apart from similar three-quarter view portraits found at the Courtauld Institute (Inv. No. 331) in London, The National Trust in Lacock Wiltshire (Inv. No. 996348) and the Mazovian Museum in Poland, the work also has comparable examples in bust portraits at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence (Inv. No. 1890/13), the Topkapı Palace Museum in Turkey (Inv. No. TSM, 17/141), as well as in the collection of Rahmi Koç.

It is believed that the origin of the portrait is to be found in the collection of 16th century Italian humanist and intellectualist Bishop Paolo Giovio (1483-1552). Giovio displayed his collection of portraits of notables in Rome until 1543, as of which the date he transferred it to Musaeum, the home he built in Como. An inventory made after the 1569 flood that destroyed almost the entire collection speaks of a “Turkish Hall” (Sala de’ Turchi). In his records from 1568, Vasari mentions having seen portraits of Hürrem and Mihrimah Sultans by Titian in this collection. Furthermore, it is known that Italian painter Cristofano dell’ Altissimo copied the paintings in this collection for Cosimo I de’ Medici. Included among these works currently on display at the Uffizi Gallery, the portrait of Mihrimah Sultan has been identified in the records of 1557 in Florence. Based on this information, it is presumed that the portrait can be dated to somewhere between 1552 and 1557, around the time of Giovio’s death.

As the daughter of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (1494-1566) and Hürrem Sultan (d. 1558), Mihrimah Sultan (1522-1578) was married to the Governor of Diyarbakır Rüstem Pasha in 1539. She had two children, Ayşe Hümaşah and Osman with Rüstem Pasha, who served as grand vizier in 1544-1553 and 1555-1561. A rather influential figure at the Harem during the reigns of her father Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent and her brother Sultan Selim II, Mihrimah Sultan commissioned Mimar Sinan to build a mosque and complex in her name both in Üsküdar and Edirnekapı.

The attire and headdress repeated in other examples of the portrait reflect the Turkish fashion of the period. During the 16th century, in which the Ottoman style became visible in Europe, both Mihrimah Sultan and her mother Hürrem Sultan represented the idealized Ottoman figure. In this respect, the portrait inspired other painters to recreate the popular theme of a given period.
Bandera de Nápoles - Trastámara.svg
Při zobrazení tohoto souboru lze snadno přidat orámování
Flag of Anjou.svg
Autor: Patricia.fidi, Licence: CC0
Flag of Anjou in France
Flag of Ducal Prussia.svg
Flag of Ducal Prussia
Sustermans - Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor - Galleria Palatina.jpg
"Il ritratto dell'imperatore Ferdinando II d'Asburgo fa pendant con quello della consorte Eleonora Gonzaga (inv. Pal., 203) sposata nel 1622. La coppia di ritratti fu probabilmente eseguita a Vienna dal Suttermans attorno al 1623 ed inviata a Firenze in segno di ringraziamento verso la granduchessa reggente Maria Maddalena d'Austria per avere accettato che il pittore si recasse presso la corte austriaca per realizzare i ritratti ufficiali a figura intera dei due regnanti" [1]
Flag of Wallachia.svg
Flag of Wallachia (cca. 1593 - 1611). This model was composed by Romanian heraldist Dan Cernovodeanu, after two (almost) identical contemporary descriptions of the flag of en:Michael the Brave (1593 - 1601) and en:Radu Şerban (1602 - 1611):

The flag is from white damascus on which is depicted a raven [sic!] with a red double cross and a red star in his berk, standing over a green juniper. (Ciro Spontoni, Historia della Transilvania, Venice, 1638)

The bird is a combination between aquila and raven, as it appears on contemporary seals.
Flag of the Kingdom of Poland.svg
Banner of Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century

A seal of Duke Premislaus II from 1290 shows the ruler holding a banner emblazoned with a crowned eagle. During the reign of King Ladislaus (r. 1320–1333), the red cloth with the White Eagle was established as the royal banner. The orientation of the eagle on the banner varied; its head could point either upwards or towards the hoist.

Mantua Flag 1575-1707 (new).svg
Při zobrazení tohoto souboru lze snadno přidat orámování
Bandera de Reino de Navarra.svg
Autor: Miguillen, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Bandera de Navarra (versión antigua)
Flag of Modena.svg
Flag of Modena
Flag of the Papal States (1803-1825).svg
Autor: Tibetan Pop Rocks, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Merchant flag of the Papal States. In use since 1803, officially adopted on 7 June 1815.
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century–1526).svg
Autor: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Flag of Croatia (Early 16th century–1526)
Flag of Schleswig.svg
Flagge Schleswig
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro2.svg
Autor: Spesh531, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro
Flag of Auvergne.svg
Autor: Patricia.fidi, Licence: CC0
Flag of the region Auvergne in France
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg
Při zobrazení tohoto souboru lze snadno přidat orámování
Flag of Oryol ship (variant).svg
Autor: Osipov Georgiy Nokka, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Proposed design of the flag of the ship "Eagle"
St. Blaise - State Flag of the Ragusan Republic.svg
Autor: Berto456, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Representation of the variant of the flag of St. Blaise which was used as the State Flag and State Ensign of the Ragusan Republic, in the colors used during the Republic.
Arms of Ireland banner (Historical).svg
Autor: Rannpháirtí anaithnid, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of Ireland depicted as a banner and in a manner like during the Kingdom of Ireland period. Based on File:Arms of Ireland (Historical).svg
Banner of Gabriel Bethlen.svg
Autor: Dahn, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Banner of Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, in 1615. Features Bethlen's arms alongside Transylvania's, within a red field with "tongues of fire". Based on several reconstructions, including that provided by the Hungarian Canadian Cultural Center, MaghiaRomânia, and Parókia Portál.