1881

2. tisíciletí
  18. stol.19. století • 20. stol.  
◄◄     18771878187918801881 • 1882 • 1883 • 1884 • 1885     ►►

1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) byl rok, který dle gregoriánského kalendáře započal sobotou.

Události

Automatický abecedně řazený seznam viz Kategorie:Události roku 1881

Česko

Svět

Probíhající události

Vědy a umění

Knihy

Narození

Automatický abecedně řazený seznam viz Kategorie:Narození 1881

Česko

Mařenka Zieglerová (* 7. února)
František Gellner (* 19. června)

Svět

Roger Martin du Gard (* 23. března)
Béla Bartók (* 25. března)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (* 19. května)
Władysław Sikorski (* 20. května)
Ettore Bugatti (* 15. září)
William Boeing (* 1. října)
Pablo Picasso (* 25. října)
Jan XXIII. (* 25. listopadu)

Úmrtí

Automatický abecedně řazený seznam existujících biografií viz Kategorie:Úmrtí 1881

Česko

Emanuel Bořický († 26. ledna)

Svět

Alexandr II. († 13. března)
Modest Petrovič Musorgskij († 28. března)

Hlavy států

Na ruský trůn v roce 1881 nastoupil předposlední car Alexandr III. (1845–1894)

Externí odkazy

Digitalizované noviny a časopisy z roku 1881:

Média použitá na této stránce

Marie Zieglerová - Jan Vilímek.jpg
Marie Zieglerová, baletka
Ettore Bugatti 1926.jpg
Italian-French automobile designer and manufacturer Ettore Bugatti (1881-1947).
Roger Martin du Gard 1937.jpg
Roger Martin du Gard, Nobel laureate in Literature 1937
Zar Alexander II c1855.jpg
Zar Alexander II., aquarellierte Lithografie. 39 x 27 cm.
Emanuel Boricky 1878.png
Portrait of Emanuel Bořický, Czech professor of mineralogy and geology.
František Gellner autoportrét.jpg
František Gellner autoportrét
First electric tram- Siemens 1881 in Lichterfelde.jpg
The world’s first electric tram, the Groß-Lichterfelde Tramway, began operation in 1881 in the Lichterfelde neighborhood of Berlin, Germany and was produced by Werner von Siemens. Direct current was supplied through the rails. The tram car is 5m long by 2m wide and weighs 4.8 tonnes. It travels at a maximum speed of 40 kilometres per hour and carries 20 people at a time. In the first three months of operation the tram had already carried 12,000 passengers.
Béla Bartók WDL11594.png
Composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók (1881–1945) was born in Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary (present-day Sânnicolau Mare, Romania). He studied music in Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) and at the Budapest Academy of Music. In 1904 he began collecting folksongs, which he recorded and classified. Between 1907 and 1934 he was professor of piano at the Budapest academy. His compositions include an opera, two ballets, orchestral music, chamber music, and folksong arrangements. This photograph of Bartók is from the archives of the League of Nations. In 1931 Bartók was invited to join the League’s Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, partly in recognition of his international interests and openness to a wide range of musical styles from different ethnic groups. The committee was established in 1922 for the purpose of building up international relations among teachers, artists, scientists, and members of other intellectual professions and improving the working conditions of the educated workforce. Its members included the scientists Marie Curie and Albert Einstein and the novelist Thomas Mann. In 1926 the committee moved from Geneva to Paris, where it was reestablished as the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. The photograph is in the archives of the League, which were transferred to the United Nations in 1946 and are housed at the UN office in Geneva. They were inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 2010.
Bartók, Béla, 1881-1945; Composers; Ethnomusicology; League of Nations; League of Nations. Committee on Intellectual Co-operation; Memory of the World; Musicians; Portrait photographs; Portraits
Kramskoy Alexander III.jpg
Portrait of Alexander III (1845-1894), the Russian Tsar, oil on canvas
Wladyslaw Sikorski 2.jpg
Władysław Sikorski, Polish commander in chief and prime minister during World War II
Modest Musorgskiy, 1870.jpg
Depicted person: Modest Petrovič Musorgskij – ruský skladatel
William E. Boeing.jpg
Catalog #: BIOB00402

Last Name: Boeing First Name: William E Notes:

Repository: San Diego Air and Space Museum Archive
Mustafa Kemal November 1918.png
Kemal Atatürk (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha until 1934, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; 1881 – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. He undertook sweeping progressive reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrializing nation. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. Due to his military and political accomplishments, Atatürk is regarded as one of the most important political leaders of the 20th century.