Administrativní dělení Spojených států amerických

Unijní státy USA jsou členy americké federace, se značnou mírou autonomie. Spojené státy americké tvoří celkem 50 jednotlivých států a federální distrikt Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia). Těchto 51 celků vznikalo různými způsoby.

Pod suverenitu USA patří dále Portoriko, Americké Panenské ostrovy, Guam, Severní Mariany, Americká Samoa a menší odlehlé ostrovy USA.

Původ jednotlivých členských států a federálního distriktu

Samostatnost Spojených států amerických byla vyhlášena v červenci 1776 vzniklými 13 unijními státy na východě současného území USA. V abecedním pořadí to byly tyto státy: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgie, Jižní Karolína, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pensylvánie, Rhode Island, Severní KarolínaVirginie. Před vyhlášením vzniku unie měly status britských kolonií. Následně byl roku 1791 dodatečně na území věnovaném státy Maryland a Virginie vytvořen Federální distrikt, na jehož území bylo vystavěno nové hlavní město USA, Washington, D.C. Unijní stát Vermont vznikl teprve roku 1777, zprvu jako plně nezávislá Vermontská republika na území, o které vedly spory původní kolonie Provincie New York a Provincie New Hampshire. Další členské státy unie vznikaly dodatečně na územích, která USA získaly vojenskou expanzí, koupěmi či dohodami o hranicích se sousedními státy nebo jako kolonie. Až na několik výjimek vznikl každý z těchto nových států postupným přerozdělováním větších, federální vládou spravovaných, teritorií, na teritoria menší, jimž bylo následně uděleno postavení členského státu USA.


Politika

S výjimkou Nebrasky (která má jednokomorový parlament) mají všechny dvoukomorový parlament, jehož označení se liší stát od státu. Ve 24 státech je označován jako Legislativa (Legislature), zatímco v 19 jako Generální shromáždění (General Assembly), v Massachusetts a New Hampshiru jako Generální dvůr (General Court), zatímco v Severní Dakotě a Oregonu jako Zákonodárné shromáždění (Legislative Assembly). Ten se s výše uvedenou výjimkou skládá ze sněmovny reprezentantů (pro ni se v pěti státech používá označení Shromáždění - Assembly, ve třech pak Sněmovna delegátů - House of Delegates) a senátu. V čele každého státu je guvernér, jenž je zároveň předsedou zdejší vlády. Každý stát má také vlastní ústavu, soudní systém, policii a další orgány. Každý stát také deleguje dva senátory do senátu USA.

Každý stát používá také vlastní vlajku a pečeť. Na rozdíl od většiny členských států jiných federací zde není příliš rozšířeno užívání vlastního znaku, který většinou nahrazuje pečeť. Některé státy však mají i znak. Naopak je zde obvyklé uzákonění dalších neobvyklých symbolů, jako je státní květina, státní zvíře apod.

Seznam států USA

Seznam členských států USA, včetně jejich tradičních zkratek, hlavních měst a měst s největším počtem obyvatelstva:

MapaKódZkratkaVlajkaPečeťČeský názevAnglický názevHlavní městoNejlidnatější městoRozloha km²Počet obyvatel
Map of USA AL.svgALAla.Flag of Alabama.svgAlabama-StateSeal.svgAlabamaAlabamaMontgomeryBirmingham135 7654 779 736
Map of USA AK.svgAKAlaskaFlag of Alaska.svgState Seal of Alaska.svgAljaškaAlaskaJuneauAnchorage1 717 854710 231
Map of USA AZ.svgAZAriz.Flag of Arizona.svgArizonaArizonaPhoenixPhoenix295 2546 392 017
Map of USA AR.svgARArk.Flag of Arkansas.svgArkansas-StateSeal.svgArkansasArkansasLittle RockLittle Rock137 7322 915 915
Map of USA CO.svgCOColo.Flag of Colorado.svgColorado-StateSeal.svgColoradoColoradoDenverDenver269 8375 029 196
Map of USA CT.svgCTConn.Flag of Connecticut.svgConnecticut-StateSeal.svgConnecticutConnecticutHartfordBridgeport14 3713 574 097
Map of USA DE.svgDEDel.Flag of Delaware.svgDelaware-StateSeal.svgDelawareDelawareDoverWilmington6 542897 934
Map of USA FL.svgFLFla.Flag of Florida.svgSeal of Florida.svgFloridaFloridaTallahasseeJacksonville170 45118 801 310
Map of USA GA.svgGAGa.Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svgGeorgia-StateSeal.svgGeorgieGeorgiaAtlantaAtlanta154 0779 687 653
Map of USA HI.svgHIHawaiiFlag of Hawaii.svgSeal of the State of Hawaii.svgHavajHawaiiHonoluluHonolulu28 3371 360 301
Map of USA ID.svgIDIdahoFlag of Idaho.svgIdaho-StateSeal.svgIdahoIdahoBoiseBoise216 6321 567 582
Map of USA IL.svgILIll.Flag of Illinois.svgIllinois-StateSeal.svgIllinoisIllinoisSpringfieldChicago149 99712 830 632
Map of USA IN.svgINInd.Flag of Indiana.svgIndianaIndianaIndianapolisIndianapolis94 3216 483 802
Map of USA IA.svgIAIa.Flag of Iowa.svgIowaIowaDes MoinesDes Moines145 7463 046 355
Map of USA SD.svgSDS.D. nebo S.Dak.Flag of South Dakota.svgJižní DakotaSouth DakotaPierreSioux Falls199 905814 180
Map of USA SC.svgSCS.C.Flag of South Carolina.svgSeal of South Carolina.svgJižní KarolínaSouth CarolinaColumbiaColumbia82 9654 625 364
Map of USA CA.svgCACal. nebo Calif.Flag of California.svgCalifornia-StateSeal.svgKalifornieCaliforniaSacramentoLos Angeles423 97037 253 956
Map of USA KS.svgKSKan. nebo Kans.Flag of Kansas.svgKansas-StateSeal.svgKansasKansasTopekaWichita213 2832 853 118
Map of USA KY.svgKYKy.Flag of Kentucky.svgKentucky-StateSeal.svgKentuckyKentuckyFrankfortLouisville104 7494 339 367
Map of USA LA.svgLALa.Flag of Louisiana.svgSeal of Louisiana.svgLouisianaLouisianaBaton RougeNew Orleans135 3824 533 372
Map of USA ME.svgMEMaineFlag of Maine.svgMaine-StateSeal.svgMaineMaineAugustaPortland86 5421 328 361
Map of USA MD.svgMDMd.Flag of Maryland.svgSeal of Maryland (reverse).svgMarylandMarylandAnnapolisBaltimore32 1605 773 552
Map of USA MA.svgMAMass.Flag of Massachusetts.svgMassachusetts-StateSeal.svgMassachusettsMassachusettsBostonBoston27 3606 547 629
Map of USA MI.svgMIMich.Flag of Michigan.svgMichigan-StateSeal.svgMichiganMichiganLansingDetroit250 9419 883 640
Map of USA MN.svgMNMinn.Flag of Minnesota.svgMinnesotaMinnesotaSaint PaulMinneapolis225 3655 303 925
Map of USA MS.svgMSMiss.Flag of Mississippi.svgMississippiMississippiJacksonJackson125 5462 967 297
Map of USA MO.svgMOMo.Flag of Missouri.svgMissouri-StateSeal.svgMissouriMissouriJefferson CityKansas City180 6935 988 927
MTMont.Flag of Montana.svgMontanaMontanaHelenaBillings381 156989 415
Map of USA NE.svgNENeb.Flag of Nebraska.svgNebraskaNebraskaLincolnOmaha200 5201 826 341
Map of USA NV.svgNVNev.Flag of Nevada.svgSeal of Nevada.svgNevadaNevadaCarson CityLas Vegas286 3512 700 551
Map of USA NH.svgNHN.H.Flag of New Hampshire.svgNewHampshire-StateSeal-NARA.svgNew HampshireNew HampshireConcordManchester24 2391 316 470
Map of USA NJ.svgNJN.J.Flag of New Jersey.svgSeal of New Jersey.svgNew JerseyNew JerseyTrentonNewark22 6088 791 894
Map of USA NY.svgNYN.Y.Flag of New York.svgNewYork-StateSeal.svgNew YorkNew YorkAlbanyNew York City141 20519 378 102
Map of USA NM.svgNMN.M.Flag of New Mexico.svgSeal of New Mexico.svgNové MexikoNew MexicoSanta FeAlbuquerque314 5902 059 179
Map of USA OH.svgOHO.Flag of Ohio.svgOhioOhioColumbusColumbus116 09611 536 504
Map of USA OK.svgOKOkla.Flag of Oklahoma.svgSeal of Oklahoma.svgOklahomaOklahomaOklahoma CityOklahoma City181 1963 751 351
Map of USA OR.svgOROre. nebo Oreg.Flag of Oregon.svgSeal of Oregon.svgOregonOregonSalemPortland255 0263 831 074
Map of USA PA.svgPAPenn. nebo Penna.Flag of Pennsylvania.svgPennsylvania-StateSeal.svgPensylvániePennsylvaniaHarrisburgPhiladelphia119 28312 702 379
Map of USA RI.svgRIR.I.Flag of Rhode Island.svgSeal of Rhode Island.svgRhode IslandRhode IslandProvidenceProvidence4 0021 052 567
Map of USA ND.svgNDN.D. nebo N.Dak.Flag of North Dakota.svgSeverní DakotaNorth DakotaBismarckFargo183 272672 591
Map of USA NC.svgNCN.C.Flag of North Carolina.svgNorthCarolina-StateSeal.svgSeverní KarolínaNorth CarolinaRaleighCharlotte139 5099 535 483
Map of USA TN.svgTNTenn.Flag of Tennessee.svgSeal of Tennessee.svgTennesseeTennesseeNashvilleMemphis109 2476 346 105
Map of USA TX.svgTXTex. nebo TexasFlag of Texas.svgSeal of Texas (unstandardized).svgTexasTexasAustinHouston696 24125 145 561
Map of USA UT.svgUTUtahFlag of Utah.svgUtah-StateSeal.svgUtahUtahSalt Lake CitySalt Lake City220 0802 763 885
Map of USA VT.svgVTVt.Flag of Vermont.svgVermont-StateSeal.svgVermontVermontMontpelierBurlington24 923625 741
Map of USA VA.svgVAVa.Flag of Virginia.svgVirginia-StateSeal-NARA.svgVirginieVirginiaRichmondVirginia Beach110 8628 001 024
Map of USA WA.svgWAWash.Flag of Washington.svgSeal of the State of Washington.svgWashingtonWashingtonOlympiaSeattle184 8246 724 540
Map of USA WI.svgWIWis. nebo Wisc.Flag of Wisconsin.svgSeal of Wisconsin.svgWisconsinWisconsinMadisonMilwaukee169 7005 686 986
Map of USA WY.svgWYWyo.Flag of Wyoming.svgSeal of the Governor of Wyoming.svgWyomingWyomingCheyenneCheyenne253 338563 626
Map of USA WV.svgWVW.Va.Flag of West Virginia.svgSeal of West Virginia.svgZápadní VirginieWest VirginiaCharlestonCharleston62 8091 852 994

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Flag of California.svg
Flag of California. This version is designed to accurately depict the standard print of the bear as well as adhere to the official flag code regarding the size, position and proportion of the bear, the colors of the flag, and the position and size of the star.
Flag of Utah.svg
Flag of Utah. Please do not revert to the "21:58, July 26, 2011" or any earlier version, as those versions are factually inaccurate.
Map of USA DE.svg
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Map of USA with Delaware highlighted
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Flag of Mississippi.svg
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The state flag of Mississippi, created in 2020 and adopted in 2021. Known as the "New Magnolia", it was the final design selected by the Commission to Redesign the Mississippi State Flag in 2020.
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Ohio State Seal, 1967.svg
Older version of the state Seal of Ohio; in use from 1967 - 1996. In 1996, the number of rays was reduced to 13.
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State Seal of Alaska.
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Flag of Oregon.svg
Flag of Oregon (obverse): The flag was adopted by the state on February 26, 1925.[1] The state seal was decided in 1903.[2][3]
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Orthographic map of the Americas with national borders added
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Map of USA with Wisconsin highlighted
Seal of Texas (unstandardized).svg
Unstandardized Seal of Texas. Note the post oak leaves and the bottom decorations.
Seal of Mississippi (2014-present).svg
The Seal of Mississippi was adopted on July 1, 2014
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Map of USA with West Virginia highlighted
Map of USA with state names.svg
Autor:

The original was edited by Andrew c to include Nova Scotia, PEI, Bahamas, and scale key.

It was originally uploaded to the English Wikipedia with the same title by Wapcaplet:

  • 20:57, 9 October 2005 . . Dbenbenn . . 959x593 (339217 bytes) (fix South Carolina label)
  • 20:27, 9 October 2005 . . Dbenbenn . . 959x593 (339227 bytes) (typo, Massachussetts -> Massachusetts)
  • 19:01, 9 October 2005 . . Dbenbenn . . 959x593 (371653 bytes) (crop, and remove some shapes (rivers, highways, capitals, lakes) that didn't display anyway)
  • 13:18, 23 September 2005 . . Ed g2s . . 990x855 (978668 bytes) (fix (removed <image /> tag))
  • 23:48, 23 September 2004 . . Wapcaplet . . 0x0 (978926 bytes) (SVG map of the United States. Created by Wapcaplet. {{GFDL} })
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A map of the United States, with state names (and Washington D.C.).
Map of USA NV.svg
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Locator map of Nevada — in the Western United States.
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Flag of Ohio.svg
The flag of the U.S. state of Ohio, officially known as the "Ohio Burgee"
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Great Seal of the State of Oregon
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Map of USA with New Jersey highlighted
Flag of Oklahoma.svg
Flag of Oklahoma, adopted in November 2006.
Flag of Nevada.svg
Flag of the State of Nevada. The flag is described in Nevada Revised Statutes Chapter 235, Sec. 20 as follows: The body of the flag must be of solid cobalt blue. On the field in the upper left quarter thereof must be two sprays of Sagebrush with the stems crossed at the bottom to form a half wreath. Within the sprays must be a five-pointed silver star with one point up. The word “Nevada” must also be inscribed below the star and above the sprays, in a semicircular pattern with the letters spaced apart in equal increments, in the same style of letters as the words “Battle Born.” Above the wreath, and touching the tips thereof, must be a scroll bearing the words “Battle Born.” The scroll and the word “Nevada” must be golden-yellow. The lettering on the scroll must be black-colored sans serif gothic capital letters.
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Map of USA with Colorado highlighted
Seal of the State of Hawaii.svg
The Great Seal of the State of Hawaii, in use from 1959 to the present day. Original design approved by Sanford B. Dole, the President of the Republic of Hawaii. Altered in 1901 to represent the change in status from republic to territory. Altered again in 1959 when the Legislature passed Act 272 (Regular Session of 1959).
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Map of USA with Louisiana highlighted
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Great Seal of the state of Wisconsin
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Map of USA with Tennessee highlighted <large>
Map of USA PA.svg
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Map of USA with Pennsylvania highlighted
Seal of Oklahoma.svg
Seal of Oklahoma.