Robert Capa

Robert Capa
RobertCapabyGerdaTaro.jpg
Rodné jménoEndre Ernő Friedmann
Narození22. října 1913
Budapešť
Úmrtí25. května 1955 (ve věku 41 let)
Thái Bình
Příčina úmrtívýbušné zařízení
Povoláníválečný zpravodaj, fotograf, válečný fotograf, fotoreportér, novinář, spisovatel a professional photographer
Partner(ka)Gerda Taro
PříbuzníCornell Capa[1] (sourozenec)
Významná dílaThe Falling Soldier
OvlivněnýErnest Hemingway
OceněníVálečný kříž za operace na vnějších bojištích (1954)
Cena Balázse Bély (1976)
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Robert Capa (vlastním jménem Endre Friedmann[2]) (22. října 1913, Budapešť25. května 1954, Thai Binh, Vietnam) byl maďarský válečný fotograf, fotožurnalista a spoluzakladatel agentury Magnum Photos. Absolvoval pět různých válek – španělskou občanskou válku v letech 1936–1939, druhou čínsko-japonskou válku, druhou světovou válku, první arabsko-izraelskou válku a válku indočínskou.

Život

Robert Capa, vlastním jménem Endre Friedmann, se narodil v Budapešti. Jeho matka Julianna Henrietta Berkovitsová pocházela z Veľkých Kapušan na východním Slovensku.[3] Z politických důvodů však brzy svoji vlast opustil, odjel do Berlína, kde se živil jako pomocník v temné komoře u agentury Dephot. Jeho první publikované snímky byly z Kodaně, kde fotografoval přednášku Lva Trockého.[3] S nástupem fašistů k moci se v roce 1933 odstěhoval do Paříže. Tam se seznámil se svou pozdější ženou Gerdou Pohorylles.

Spolu vymysleli historku o slavném americkém fotografovi Robertu Capovi, který je za mořem velice uznávaným a nyní náhodně zavítal do Francie. Pseudonym používal, aby lépe prodal svoje fotografie; předstíral totiž, že je slavným americkým fotografem. Tutéž fintu využil i ve Spojených státech, kde se naopak vydával za věhlasného francouzského fotografa. Ve Francii se Capa soustředil hlavně na fotografování nepokojů a demonstrací, které provázely předvolební agitaci francouzské levicové Lidové fronty.[3]

Dne 5. září 1936 vznikla jeho nejznámější fotografie kulkou zasaženého republikánského vojáka, který padá k zemi. Tato fotografie byla posléze označována za naaranžovanou, ale sám Capa podotýkal, že: „Nic se nemusí aranžovat, fotografie už jsou prostě tam a člověk jenom zmáčkne spoušť.“ nebo „pravda je nejlepší obraz, nejlepší propaganda. Jedná se prý o jednu z nejpřetiskovanějších fotografií zobrazující hrůznou realitu války.[3]

Capa proslul dalšími válečnými fotografiemi, velmi známé jsou jeho fotografie z vylodění v Normandii, které proběhlo 6. června 1944 (Den D).

Magnum Photos

V roce 1947 založil agenturu Magnum Photos spolu s Henri Cartier-Bressonem, Davidem Seymourem, Billem Vandivertem a George Rodgererem. V roce 1951 se stal jejím prezidentem.

Dne 25. května 1954 se vydal fotografovat probíhající francouzsko-vietnamskou válku. Během ní však tragicky zahynul, když šlápl na jednu z min. Robert Capa byl vždy v první linii, jeho snímky nebyly nikdy plné krve, spíše velmi emotivní.

Nejsou-li vaše fotografie dobré, nebyli jste dost blízko.
— Robert Capa
Pro válečného korespondenta je nebýt přítomen invazi jako odmítnout rande s Lanou Turner.[4]
— Robert Capa

Knihy

  • Death in the Making, 1938
  • The Battle of Waterloo Road, 1941
  • Invasion!, 1944
  • Slightly Out of Focus, Henry Holt and Co., New York, 1947
  • Robert Capa: Photographs, 1996
  • Heart of Spain, 1999
  • Robert Capa: The Definitive Collection, 2001
  • Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, 2002

Galerie

Odkazy

Reference

  1. Union List of Artist Names. 2. března 2019. Dostupné online. [cit. 2021-05-21]
  2. Capa, Robert [online]. [cit. 2009-02-18]. Dostupné v archivu pořízeném dne 2011-10-06. 
  3. a b c d ZÍKA, Jindřich. Robert Capa: Tváře dějin [online]. Britské listy [cit. 2010-06-13]. Dostupné online. 
  4. http://www.milujemefotografii.cz/10-citatu-o-fotografii-ktere-musite-znat

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Year: 1889 (1880s)
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I he Russian Question, a hopelesslj l>ala\ about I . S. reporter whose bosswon 1 (el him write truth aboul Russia opened in 300 Soviet theaters at once.
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Year: 1889 (1880s)
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Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
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e that do exist thegreater part are for children. There is a permanent circus in every city,with clowns that are invariably American now. We saw a clown in Kievdressed as a rich Chicago woman, and the Russian idea of what a richChicago woman looks like is wonderful. The parks have puppet shows,and swings, and teeters, and organized games. Many cities have smallreal railroads, run by children, and operated for children. At Batum, thereis a little ship, perfect in every detail, commanded by a thirteen-year-oldboy, and operated by his crew of little boys. And all of them got theirpositions through competition. We noticed, though, in the children of the destroyed areas, a hauntedsadness in the eyes, and smiles that come very reluctantly. Many of thesechildren have lived a hundred years of tragedy when they should havebeen in grade school. mittee of Communist Party hide the ruins. Below, center: kids play in theyard, still strewn with rubble of war, of first apartment houses to be rebuilt.
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Refugiados andando na praia. Campo de internação francês para exilados republicanos, Le Barcarès, França. Março de 1939.
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Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
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Women and children
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
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what once were houses. We were amazed not only that they could survive suchconditions, but that they also remained feminine, managing to look neat and fresh..
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
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We found this Ukrainian family at their noon meal of borsch, tomatoes, black bread and milk. As always, there are icons and portrait of son lost in war.
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
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T7. •*■***»***.« In*.. Schoolgirls await opening of Lenin s tomb, where they will lay their little wreaths. Study of Russian revolution is required throughout school system. On holidays class after class of children arrive at Red Square to take their placein the long queue for Lenins tomb. Some bring their lunches. They laugh andfool around, for this is almost a festive occasion, a kind of religious feast day. Tours over, students and teachers sit on the benches under the Kremlinwall, and again see the face of Lenin (and that of Stalin) across Red Square.Wherever you go, Stalin looks down on you. His likeness is everywhere.
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Photographer Robert Capa during the Spanish civil war, May 1937. Photo by Gerda Taro.
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
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Children are trained for the ballet almost from the time they are babies. Compe-tition is enormous. These little girls hope to debut in the chorus at fourteen.

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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
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A family returns by ferry to Stalingrad from the east bank of the Volga.
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Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
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War orphans are taken care of by the state in specialnurseries. These little children have all lost both parents. The Russians are fanatical chess players, and these High-school geography class. Schools are coeducationalboys in Kiev can hardly play, for all the kibitzers. and school system is roughly the same as in U.S. 52
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Women reap the harvest on the collective farms, for many men are dead or maimed. They laugh and talk, but seldom pause in their ivork. Farm women work from dawn till dusk So few men are left that peasant girls dance to-gether in their club when days work is done.And besides, the men are bashful, one told us.

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Identifier: ladieshomejourna65janwyet (find matches)
Title: The Ladies' home journal
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945
Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
Publisher: Philadelphia : (s.n.)
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